Ретроспектива научно-образовательной школы проф. Б. С. Гольдштейна
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Evolution of Telecommunication Protocols


Evolution of Telecommunication Protocols

Boris S. Goldstein
Saint-Petersburg, BHV-Piter, 2002. — ISBN 5-8206-0106-8

It is the first English publication of a book, originally published in Russian, that has been widely recognized in Russia and went through three editions.

The book covers one of the key technology problems existing in Russian, CIS and East-European telephone networks - the interoffice signaling, and includes a short description of some important technical aspects of the Russian PSTN. Since drastic and, in some way, dramatic changes have taken place in that PSTN, the book reflects developments in this rapidly evolving area. The author gives a clear, detailed account of current telephone network technology, and analyzes the standards and interoffice signaling protocols. He describes how the technology has evolved from direct current signaling to common channel signaling system No.7, and demonstrates the techniques and methods required for evaluation of signaling systems to ensure their functionality as well as quality of their design. After giving an introductory material concerning Specification and Description Language, SDL, the book focuses on protocol specification techniques for various signaling systems.

When preparing this English edition of the book, its text has been thoroughly revised and updated to include new data. So, the book provides a reader with original information, and with that carefully selected from papers, handbooks, monographs, recommendations, standards, reports and other materials of East Europe telephone industry. Being concentrated both on general signaling protocol principles and peculiar East Europe PSTN protocols, the book:

  • Examines the way in which the former USSR signaling protocols developed.
  • Draws together and discusses the whole range of technical solutions, from three-wire analog signaling system to common channel signaling No.7 protocol.
  • Gives practical guidance, often through case studies, on the ways in which the critical interworking problems can be successfully solved.



1 Signaling principles in telecommunications networks 9
1.1 Signaling in PSTN 9
1.2 Classification of telephone signaling systems 12
1.3 Evolution of signaling protocols 14
1.4 Peculiarities of Russian signaling systems 20
1.5 Adaptation and certification aspects 23

2 SDL-oriented methodology for signaling systems specification and description 27
2.1 Introduction to SDL 27
2.2 Signaling protocol scenarios in MSC language 41
2.3 Specification methods for telecommunications 48

3 Two-bit channel associated signaling 55
3.1 Signaling in PCM systems 55
3.2 Signaling in urban networks. Local call 60
3.3 Signaling in urban networks. Incoming toll call 82
3.4 Signaling on universal both-way trunks 96

4 Three-wire analog trunk signaling 115
4.1 Battery signaling principles 115
4.2 Supervision signaling: Local call 122
4.3 Supervision signaling: Incoming toll call 148

5 Single-frequency and two-frequency signaling 167
5.1 Voice-frequency signaling 167
5.2 Single-frequency 2600 Hz signaling for toll connecting trunks (ZSL) 169
5.3 2600 Hz single frequency signaling on toll switched trunks (SLM) 178
5.4 Single-frequency signaling in toll and private telephone networks 189
5.5 Single-frequency 2100 Hz or 1600 Hz signaling for semi-automatic regional communication 193
5.6 Two-frequency 1200 Hz and 1600 Hz signaling 197
5.7 Two-frequency 600 Hz and 750 Hz signaling 207

6 Multifrequency signaling systems 211
6.1 Multifrequency shuttle register signaling 211
6.2 Multifrequency packet 1 signaling 219
6.3 Multifrequency packet 2 signaling 229

7 One-bit channel associated signaling 233
7.1 Norka code signaling: local call 233
7.2 Norka code signaling: toll call 242
7.3 Channel associated signaling by inductive code 253

8 Special call handling procedures 265
8.1 Toll operator intrusion into called subscriber-s conversation 265
8.2 Automatic number identification 267
8.3 Calling subscriber number request 275
8.4 Own number dialing 278

9 CCITT signaling systems 283
9.1 Signaling systems No.1, No.3, No.4, No.5 283
9.2 R1 signaling system 287
9.3 R2 signaling system 289

10 Signaling system No.7 299
10.1 Introduction 299
10.2 Message transfer part MTP 303
10.3 Signaling connection control part SССP 310
10.4 ISDN user part ISUP 314
10.5 Transaction capabilities application part TCAP 319
10.6 Intelligent network application part INAP 324
10.7 Mobile application part MAP and base station subsystem application part BSSAP of GSM standard 326
10.8 MUP and HUP mobile user parts of NMT standard 328
10.9 Operations, maintenance and administration part OMAP 329

11 Analysis, testing and conversion of signaling protocols 331
11.1 Analysis of probabilistic time characteristics of signaling scanning and processing 331
11.2 Protocol testers of Russian signaling systems 339
11.3 Signaling protocol converters 349
11.4 Information databases 354

References 357

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